Partnership Law in Ontario and Different Business Structures

When starting a business in Ontario, it is crucial to understand the legal framework and various business structures available. This article aims to provide an overview of partnership law in Ontario and shed light on the different business structures that entrepreneurs can choose from.

Understanding Partnership Law in Ontario

A partnership is a legal entity formed by two or more individuals or corporations who agree to carry on a business together with a view to profit. In Ontario, partnerships are governed by the Partnership Act, which outlines the rights, responsibilities, and liabilities of the partners.

One of the defining features of a partnership is the shared responsibility and liability among partners. In a general partnership, each partner shares unlimited personal liability for the debts and obligations of the partnership. This means that if the partnership cannot meet its financial obligations, the personal assets of the partners may be at risk, unlike corporations where the personal assets of the directors and/or shareholders are generally not at risk and are protected.

To mitigate some of this risk, entrepreneurs may opt for a limited partnership (LP). In an LP, there are two types of partners: general partners and limited partners. General partners have unlimited liability, while limited partners’ liability is limited to the amount they have invested in the partnership. Limited partners typically do not participate in the day-to-day management of the business and accordingly seek to limit their liability exposure in the business.

Partnerships may also have certain tax advantages as they are not taxed as a separate entity unlike corporations. Instead, the income or losses from the partnership business flow through to the partners, who report their share on their individual tax returns. This means that the partnership itself is not subject to income tax.

Different Business Structures in Ontario

  1. Sole Proprietorship: This is the simplest form of business structure, where an individual carries on business on their own. While it offers complete ownership and control, the sole proprietor is personally liable for all debts and liabilities of the business.
  2. Partnership: As mentioned earlier, partnerships involve two or more individuals carrying on a business together. Partnerships offer shared responsibility and flexibility in terms of decision-making. However, partners also share liability for the partnership’s debts.
  3. Corporation: A corporation is a separate legal entity from its owners. It offers limited liability, meaning the personal assets of directors and shareholders are generally protected. Incorporating a business involves more formalities and ongoing administrative requirements, but it can provide advantages such as access to capital and tax benefits.
  4. Cooperative: Cooperatives are businesses owned and operated by a group of individuals who have joined together to meet common needs. Each member has equal say in decision-making and shares in the profits based on their participation. Cooperatives often exist to provide goods or services to their members at a reasonable cost. These corporations are regulated by the Ontario’s Co-operative Corporations Act.
  5. Limited Liability Partnership (LLP): LLPs are a relatively new business structure in Ontario. They combine elements of a partnership and a corporation, providing limited liability to all partners. This structure is commonly used in professions such as accounting, law, and architecture, but can also be used for a variety of other partnerships where a group of partners will not be actively involved in the day-to-day operations and accordingly wish to limit their liability exposure.
  6. Non-Profit Organization: Non-profit organizations are formed for social, educational, or charitable purposes. They are governed by the Ontario Not-for-Profit Corporations Act and must fulfill specific criteria to maintain their non-profit status.

Choosing the Right Business Structure

Selecting the appropriate business structure is critical, as it can impact taxation, legal liability, and operational flexibility. It is highly recommended to consult with a trusted lawyer and financial advisor before making a decision.  Factors to consider include the nature of the business, personal liability tolerance, tax implications, and future growth plans. The lawyers at Vakili Law Group have extensive experience advising entrepreneurs during their early years and we can help you navigate these pivotal times in order for you to make informed decisions that will serve your business in the long run.

Remember that each business structure has its own benefits and drawbacks. By understanding partnership law in Ontario and exploring the various business structures available, you can make informed decisions when starting your entrepreneurial journey.


Ontario’s partnership law provides a foundation for individuals to form partnerships and engage in business together. Understanding the different business structures, from sole proprietorships to corporations and beyond, empowers entrepreneurs to choose the most suitable option for their needs. The lawyers at Vakili Law Group have extensive experience advising start-ups, established corporations and publicly traded companies. Our lawyers are committed to delivering value-driven advice that will help you establish the proper foundation for your business’ success.


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Bobby Vakili
Bobby Vakili

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